: Okcu, Grindi
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Deimos
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: 14.03.2009
: 82
4 2009, 12:04
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Deimos
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: 0
: 14.03.2009
: 82
4 2009, 12:05
P oa

B.O. Aea, oe aep opa eoo oa Tepcoo ocyapceoo yepcea, e-oppecoe Poccco Aae ocoa . K.. oocoo


oee oyea aa ee cxap ac epep, ya epecy aoc oooo oa eoea, epe oapy cae oea c acoo ooo 10 ceyy aa x aa-oa. x paax, aya, cocae ceo ooo 30 ox oe oa. Ta opao op aa-p, aoee e opae cex yopoex poe - aepo epeco aoc oa.

epe 25 e yee x ee aex o poco o pae ay, aae epoeaopae (). Oco a po oa, pecppye a epoeaopaax eoea, c :

ea-p (o 0.5 o 4 oea ceyy, aya - 50-500 B);

a-p (o 5 o 7 oea ceyy, aya - 10-30 B);

aa-p (o 8 o 13 oea ceyy, aya - o 100 B);

ca-p - "epeea" (o 13 o 14 oea ceyy);

ea-p (o 15 o 35 oea ceyy, aya - 5-30 B);

aa-p (o 35 o 100 oea ceyy, aya - o 15 B);

oa, o 1968 . aepacoy cceoae . Koy yaoc acpoa opy oo eoea (ecoa eoo - oe o ) cae oea ax oe, oax oopeeo c oea epecx ooeao oa. O aa oyey ac aoeaoao (M). Koea aoeaopae o acoe coaa c peoaa po epoeaopa - aa-po
Deimos
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: 0
: 14.03.2009
: 82
4 2009, 12:06
Teep ae, o aa-o pye epece ae oea oy peao a, peao ya, oco coe poe , o coepeo ecoeo, ca c yceo eeoc.

ae, o aa-o aac y eoea.

pe oep aepac cxoo oppe Ma-Kao caa ocaoo oocoay oey o o, o aa-p xapaepye poecc ypeeo "capoa" cex opao p cocpeooe a a ao-y yceo poee. Haaec, apep, ooe coaee ey acoo aa-o epoo ep peoo ocp (pepo 0.1 cey).

Koa apae aa, a aa-p ycac popea xapaep x po cycoax oea. oca e aa-o cea, oa o opa aa epe oae a a peaa apa. o ooe ya, yepae pe oep , o aa-p - o poecc capyx oco aepa, ayxa, oa aep ae.

Koa aae ca cooc, a epoeaopae pee ceo aaec yeee ecoc aa-o, cocex coco opcoa, x oceeoe aeee a-pa. cooo ceo eoea opy eee ea-o, xo o pe ca oy oa ecoo epoo oe cpx oea - epeeoopax py o ca-pa c acoo ooo 14 o ceyy - c c.

ec ceye oe o ocoeco, o y oca e pe ca ocae aa-po cooecye ooy pee cyo. pe oep cae, o co - o acee aeoo pooo, oa p acye o eoe ca opeoc ycpac o ao eeoc. A eee p, acoc - ea-o, c a "oxpae" oa.
Deimos
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: 0
: 14.03.2009
: 82
4 2009, 12:07
Koea aa-pa pye epoae poe ooo eeoc oopaa eca coe cxo-ooece poecc o oy.

eec cacece cepeae ae opeeeo ceecy oy oo, o xapaep aa-pa ec poe , epoo, acece.

Xapaep aa-pa cyyo yae. cceoa, poeee pee oepo , oaa, o y oca e, ex eo pae aa-p, peoaae cocooc acpaoy e. eaeo py cyex oapyaec ooe ocyce aa-po ae p apx aax. cooo c pe opaa, oao ca pyoc pee poe acpaoo xapaepa.

pya ocoeoc - opaee copoc, aoeoe acoo aa-po (appye y pax e o 8 o 13 o ceyy) a cpoy ax cecopx cxecx pea. oee cp p, a yepae pe oep, apapye oy oepaoc pee ec.

a, aa-p eycoo ca c opa e, c ppoo opao, oax ce oy. Mexa, ece oopoo oapyae pacee, pee oopae, o eoea oe popec a oe pax aax eoeeco cop. oee o poecc acpaoo e opo - o, o aae oe.
Deimos
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: 0
: 14.03.2009
: 82
4 2009, 12:08
ece x exao coaeoo opo oe apecppoao e epecx ax xpe, poocxc epe o eoea a oee yop-aep, epy oepe - a oea aa-po. B oy pyx ox aoee ycee pop pecppy opoae epeype ee x cx y. Ta opao, exa oa oapya yooe pae ey eoeo ae eoeoopao oeo.

pe oep ee 1953 . peoo, o "yceoc oa epec oec oa oece c c eoop aao, poa ce opy ac"!..

y e o oepa ay oooc, yaa, o "ece a epece exa oa x coca e a ocoa oep oox pecae. Bea eeppyex oo epecx oeao ceo aaa , o ee aee, opye aco epeco aoc oa oo e e oo paoaco, o ae aco yox oea. p acoe oea 10 ceyy u cpee acoe aa-po a epoa ca e y o pa oo epo". K coae, o oa, ooy, e a o cepxoacox epoax oeax, ocoo cyecyx ececeo peoaope e-oocepa, yp oopoo axoc ce e cyeca ocepe e. ec yeco ae, o a o epoax oea c acoo aa-pa eca ca oaaec o e opyoc eoo apaa Cc aee o oe cay c ceyeo paea
Deimos
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: 0
: 14.03.2009
: 82
4 2009, 12:09
P e

Xo epe peooe o cyecoa epxx opoax epopoox coe aocep e caa ee oe pooo ea, pe o, oaae cyecoae oocep e, oocc 1925 . Opaee paoo pax aaoo o oocep, opyae e a coax o 50-100 , oeceae x pacpocpaee a oe pacco, o o pyocex.

ccey epoae o cepeco coe, opaeo oepxoc e e oocepo, B.O. ya 1952 . caaa eopeec pecaa, a ae cepeao oep cyecoae ececex peoaco ooc e-oocepa. pecaae peoace aco cooecy a aae "co oa" oo cepeco oooe e-oocepa, a o epoax oea ocooo peoaca a e opyoc eoo apa - co oey aa-pa oa eoea, peey peye paee. B ee ac yao Keo apecppoa ooe "y" oea ayo o 100 B/ c acoo aoe 9 , oo ec 0.3-3 ce, pee o 30 ce.

Pao yaa a oo epec. Ope peoace e aco ca aa eo ee - "yaoce peoac". aee eopeece ca oocee epe, pepe pa ye, oo yo coca peoaopa e-oocepa oe cyoe, ceoe oae ocoeoc epoax oea a peoacx acoax.
Deimos
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: 0
: 14.03.2009
: 82
4 2009, 12:10
o eoyoy e oca ceaco, po oye epoax oea a peoacx acoax, opeeex opo paepa e, cya pap aocepoo epeca - o, aee ce cooyoc po a eo ape (pepo 100 papo ceyy).

B cepe yaocx peoaco aac eo paee acy, cooecye peoac acoa, opeee o opya

f = (c/2p RE) [n(n+1)]1/2,

e f - acoa ( ), c - copoc cea, RE - payc e, a n - opo oep peoaca. Oao -a eeao poooc "ceo" opooc peoaopa e-oocepa aa (opa Q = 4-6), o ae c peoacx aco, opeee paee

f = fi (1-1/Q),

e fi - acoa peoaope c ea cea.

Cpeeece cepeao aaee ae aoee eo paex peoacx aco coca pepo 8, 14, 20, 26, 32 . Ha oee cox acoax peoac caoc o eae. ocoo - e, cao eco cepao oo apa peoaco aco peeax 7-11 , o oe ac eee cyo papoc peoacx aco oo e peeax = (0.1-0.2) .

o epe, poee aopa eo 1963 . Tacae, epx yx peoacx aco oye ceye peya:

- acoa = 8.5 , pa ooc peoaca (a ypoe 0.5) = 2.5 ;

- acoa = 14.5 , pa ooc peoaca (a ypoe 0.5) = 4.5 .

.
Deimos
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: 0
: 14.03.2009
: 82
4 2009, 12:11
Haoe ecoc peoace oea ooc e-oocepa oca e. Ha acoe ooo 8 cepaa ooc oea cocae 0.1 B/? aocooe opacae a 15% o pe ax yp. Ho peoace coca caee pae, a a opacae yea oacox epoax o co oocepy, o pe oey epoy oepa. Ooee oceoyeoo acya ay ooy yy cocae 5-10 pa.

Peoace oea oooe e-oocepa aoee oeo pae oyee x oea - pox oao po (Apa, a Aepa, oe, ). ooy x ecoc p epex a cpex poax e, e popx peoax.
Deimos
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: 0
: 14.03.2009
: 82
4 2009, 12:13
epoaoe oe e o o

Boae c o ecyao cxoce po paya - aa-po oa eoea po e - oacox yca epoaoo o coe e-oocepa. He ceo, o p oppoa ooo eeoc poecce o p ee cpe pe coa ypex po.

oyaec, o ececee epoae o c eoxo ycoe apoe , a ae paya a ee. x po e opaaec po ayepa, ooaeo p poaxa
oe o po eoecx oe x po a cxpoaopa oe paya cey, o pae epe, p ax poe:

ec cepeae oepe peao aoc aa-pa oa eoea c epoa peoac oea oooe e-oocepa?
Kaoa po x eoecx oe (peoacx oea) o x opao caoe paya a ee?
Hao eoey pa c coo cooecye ece o ( x "aee") p oeax a ococ?
Deimos
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: 0
: 14.03.2009
: 82
4 2009, 12:14
pooc o ee epe p pao pax a cepeo:

- a oo ooe oecy cycceo coaae oe;

- yae ooe a eoopoe pe papyec o ex epoax oe;

- epepo pecppyc eoope oaae opaa c oopeeo cae ee epoaoo o e.

Ho, apep, oce cepeo o aoy oec cyccex epoax oe a opa eoea pec aco, e coaae c yao acoo aa-pa y oox (a pao, epoeaopa p x oax e pecppoac). o o cex cyax cceoa pooc p oe ox aex apeoc epoaoo o, o ecx oe o coe B/, cyeceo peax ececee ypo oea aa-pa yaocx peoaco.

Hae c oo, o oe oe cxoco ocox xapaepc po paya u aa-po po oe paya u peoaca eoo apa. paec coaa aao aco aa-po (8-13 ) ocooo yaocoo peoaca (7-11 ). peo pa aya "epee" epecx oea aa-pa (ooo 30 poo) aya oecyeo a o epecoo o "yo" ocoo peoaco aco eoo apa (0.1 B/? a acoe ooo 8 p pe ooc peoaca 2.5 , o p oepex paepax oooo oa eoea 10-15 c cocae ooo 25-40 poo). p o aa-p ycac e cea o (o ce) a e a oea yaocx peoaco.
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